Feb 07, 2023  
2016-2017 Academic Catalogue 
    
2016-2017 Academic Catalogue [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

Courses of Instruction


Course Numbering System. Each subject is identified by a symbol made up of two parts. The first part is an abbreviation denoting the general field of study. The second part is a number denoting the particular subject. The first digit indicates the year in which the course is usually taken and, therefore, the level of instruction.

Credit. The unit of academic credit used at the Virginia Military Institute is the semester hour. In general a semester hour represents one hour of classroom work (lecture or recitation) or one period (two or three hours) of laboratory or supervised research or field work per week during a single semester. Thus a course that meets for three class hours and one laboratory period each week during one semester usually carries credit for four semester hours.

In the following course descriptions the figures on the title lines indicate, in order, the class hours per week, the laboratory or field work hours per week, and the semester hours credit. For example, the figures “3—2—4” mean that the class meets three times a week for one-hour classroom sessions and has two hours of laboratory, supervised research, or field work each week, and that the course carries four semester hours of credit.

 

ENGLISH, RHETORIC, AND HUMANISTIC STUDIES

Department of English, Rhetoric, and Humanistic Studies
Department Head: Colonel Miller

Requirements for a major in English are specified in English, Rhetoric, and Humanistic Studies .

Note: A minimum grade of C in ERH 101  , WR 101, or EN 101 is a prerequisite for ERH 102  , and a minimum grade of C in ERH 102  , WR 102, or EN 102 is a prerequisite for all 200- and 300-level English, Rhetoric, and Humanistic Studies courses. All 400-level courses have additional prerequisites, which are listed in the course descriptions or provided in registration materials. These prerequisites may be waived by the department head if there is evidence that the cadet is well prepared for the 400-level course. 

200-level courses:  These courses build on research-informed writing skills developed in ERH 102 - Writing and Rhetoric II . Major writing assignments are typically 1000 words each, totaling at least 2000 words, and emphasizing close reading, synthesis of ideas, and guided use of sources.

300-level courses:  Intermediate courses stressing critical reading of more complex works and research-informed writing. Major writing assignments are typically 1500 words each, totaling at least 3000 words, and emphasizing analysis. Assignments require cadets to demonstrate some originality of thought.

400-level courses:  Advanced courses requiring more independent work, substantial reading assignments, writing totaling 4000 words, and typically a major course project.

  
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    ERH 225 - Visual Arts Studio


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of the conventions of one or more of the visual arts–e.g., painting, drawing, photography, film, and computer media–with opportunities to practice in the medium. The course emphasizes original creative expression and includes opportunities to share work beyond the classroom. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 230 - Artistic Responses to Social and Political Issues


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of the ways in which artists in the fine arts, literature, and/or music have responded creatively to social and political issues. The course may focus on a single genre or issue, or it may take a broader view. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 240 - Poverty and Human Capability


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An exploration of the causes of, and possible solutions to, the problem of poverty, especially within the United States. Cadets will study various ways of understanding and defining poverty, as well as the question of whose moral responsibility it is to do something to alleviate poverty. The goal is not only to develop a greater understanding of poverty and the poor, but also to identify solutions that are both practical and ethical. Cadets cannot take this course if they have already taken PH 303. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 250 - Teaching Writing


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An introduction to contemporary philosophies, theories, and pedagogies of teaching writing, as well as current scholarship on tutoring and writing centers.  Special attention is devoted to analyzing the role(s) of the teacher/tutor, responding to texts-in-progress, and continuing to strengthen cadets’ abilities as readers and writers. This course serves as a foundation in the principles in rhetoric and composition that will prepare cadets for (but not guarantee) employment as peer consultants in the VMI Writing Center. Cadets cannot take this course if they have already taken WR 220. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 301 - Rhetoric and Public Address


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of the principles and techniques of effective public speaking and listening practices through examination of a variety of historical and contemporary examples. The course offers advanced practice in persuasive, public address with extensive instructor and peer feedback.  Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C, and ERH 103  or SE 300.
  
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    ERH 302 - Civic Discourse


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An examination of civic discourse and the major theories of rhetoric that define and shape acts of public literacy today.  Particular attention will be devoted to the role that language plays in shaping knowledge, identity, and community, and the way different definitions, purposes, and strategies of rhetoric help us to construct meaning.  Cadets will write for real audiences in the public domain. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 303 - Cultural Rhetorics


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A close examination of a significant event, social movement, or major figure particular to a distinct local or global culture. Through the analysis of oral, written, and visual texts, cadets will study and draw conclusions about the rhetorical strategies that drive cultural movements.  Course is repeatable based on topic area. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 304 - Language and Style


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An intermediate writing course that focuses on the study of style, one of the five canons of rhetoric. Cadets will develop their abilities to read, draft, and revise complex texts, paying special attention to the relationship between style and meaning. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 311-313 - Professional Writing (Discipline/Field Specific)


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An examination of contemporary issues through the written discourse of professional communities.  These seminars will treat select professions–law, the government, the military, the arts, among others. Cadets will study the profession’s rhetorical traditions, read and analyze significant texts from a  rhetorical perspective, and develop writing projects that evolve from relevant reading, research, and experiences with professionals in the field.  Projects with practical application for external audiences will be emphasized. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 314 - Technical Communication


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An introduction to the conventions of writing in engineering and the sciences from a rhetorical perspective. Cadets will learn to translate a variety of technical documents for select audiences, purposes, and occasions. Cadets cannot take this course if they have already taken WR 342 or WR 342W. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 321 - British Literature in Cultural Context


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of particular works, authors, or movements focusing on the ways in which cultural and historical context have influenced the composition of and response to literature in Great Britain. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 322 - American Literature in Cultural Context


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of particular works, authors, or movements focusing on the ways in which cultural and historical context have influenced the composition of and response to literature in the United States. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 323 - Philosophy and Literature


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An exploration of similarities and differences between the allegedly ancient enemies, philosophy and literature. Questions to be explored might include: Is literature all subjective, working only to stir emotions? Is philosophy capable of purely objective reasoning? Do philosophy and literature share any goals? Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 331 - Aesthetics


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An introduction to the field of aesthetics, the philosophical study of art and beauty.  Questions to be explored might include: Is beauty in the eye of the beholder or are some works really better than others?  How can we know?  What exactly is a work of art? Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 332 - Logic and Critical Thinking


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of logic designed to improve cadets’ ability to identify, analyze, and evaluate arguments, understood not as forms of verbal combat but as cases of reasoning from premises to a conclusion. The course aims to improve critical thinking skills and the ability to defend one’s own beliefs rationally.  Cadets cannot take this course if they have already taken PH 301. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 341 - Contemporary Art Since 1945


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An examination of the diverse and challenging explosion in art that occurred after the Second World War, from Abstract Expressionism in the 1940s to digital art of the 21st century. Issues such as personal and social identity, cultural and historical occurrences, new media and methods of artistic production, and the overall “shock” that contemporary art presents to modern audiences will be explored.  Cadets cannot take this course if they have already taken FA 362. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 352 - Practicum


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 3
    Credit Hours: 1

    A required or optional co-requisite for any course in the departmental curriculum to provide opportunities for practical experiences, including (but not limited to) studio work, editing and design, or tutoring. This course is repeatable. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 361-362 - Independent Study


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Intermediate independent reading, research, and/or writing projects that build on previous oursework in the major, pursued under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 370-379 - Studies in Art and Culture


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An examination of selected media in light of a particular culture’s history and ideals, beginning with such foundational questions as:  What defines a culture? What is the relationship between artistic expression and cultural concerns and values?  In what ways is art political? Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 411 - Fieldwork


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This course gives cadets opportunities to practice good citizenship by engaging in community-based service learning. Cadets’ fieldwork experiences may also involve projects for business, professional, or non-profit organizations. Cadets may choose to work individually with a faculty advisor or to enroll in a regularly scheduled class. Fieldwork experiences must both bear significant academic components and conform to departmentally established requirements and learning outcomes. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 421 - One Text


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An examination of a single masterwork–literary, philosophical, or artistic–focused on the ways in which cultural and historical context influence the production of and responses to texts. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 422 - Major Figures


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An in-depth study of the work of one major rhetorician, philosophy, writer or artist. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 461-462 - Independent Study


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Advanced independent reading, research, and/or writing projects that build on previous coursework in the major, pursued under the supervision of a member of the faculty. Prerequisite(s): ERH 102 , WR 102, or EN 102, with a minimum grade of C.
  
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    ERH 470-479 - Seminar in Rhetoric and Writing


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Focused study of a specific topic in rhetoric and writing, including (but not limited to) historical and theoretical studies, linguistics, creative writing, or writing for a profession such as journalism. Prerequisite(s): appropriate upper-level rhetoric or writing course (as specified in registration materials) or permission of the department head.
  
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    ERH 481 - Senior Capstone Course


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A seminar in which cadets will demonstrate their comprehensive achievement of the learning outcomes in the major by creating a capstone e-portfolio and making an oral presentation to the department faculty. Prerequisites: First Class standing; completion of all Major Core Requirements and at least three required electives. Cadets cannot take this course if they have already taken EN-480W. 
  
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    ERH 495 - Honors Thesis I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A program of reading and research, including preparation of an annotated bibliography and prospectus, for an honors thesis in the major.  Prerequisites: completion of all Major Core Requirements and at least three required electives; a 3.2 average in the major; and approval by the department head. Cadets cannot take this course if they have already taken EN 495.
  
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    ERH 496 - Honors Thesis II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Completion of the thesis for honors in the major. Prerequisite(s): A grade of B or higher in ERH 495  and approval by the department head. Cadets cannot take this course if they have already taken EN 496.

     


FRENCH

Department of Modern Languages and Cultures
Department Head: Colonel Sunnen

All cadets who enter with two or more entrance units in a modern foreign language are given placement tests and are placed in appropriate courses on the basis of the test results combined with their previous high school language coursework, and after consultation with the department head of modern languages.

A single year of a foreign language shall count toward meeting graduation requirements only when the cadet is studying a second language or is taking a language as an elective.

Cadets must demonstrate proficiency in ML 101 in order to be admitted into ML 102. They must, similarly, demonstrate proficiency in ML 102 before enrolling in ML 201, and in ML 201 before enrolling in ML 202/204. Proficiency in ML 202/204 is a prerequisite for admission to 300-level courses. Completion of two 300-level courses or their equivalent is expected before enrollment in any 400 -level course. Once a cadet has completed work at the 202/204 level, he/she may not return to the elementary level course for credit.

Cadets who present four years of a high school language or demonstrate native or near-native language abilities may not enroll at the elementary level of that language. Such students will have the choice of enrolling either in the first semester intermediate level of that language or in the first semester elementary course of a different language.

  
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    FR 101 - Elementary French I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An introduction to the fundamentals of French. Primary emphasis on the acquisition of the basic language skills (comprehending, speaking, reading, and writing). Intended for beginners with no previous experience in the language.
  
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    FR 102 - Elementary French II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A continuation of FR 101 . Prerequisite(s): FR 101 .
  
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    FR 201 - Intermediate French I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A systematic review of grammar and the readings of texts of significant literary, cultural or historical value. Composition, aural and oral work continued. Prerequisite(s): FR 102 .
  
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    FR 202 - Intermediate French II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A continuation of FR 201 . Prerequisite(s): FR 201 .
  
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    FR 252 - France and the French


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A comprehensive, interdisciplinary survey of French culture that may include topics ranging from the earliest times to the present, with particular attention to literature, the arts, thought, politics, society, food, and customs. Taught in English. This course does not include a foreign language component and cannot be used toward a language requirement. Note: Retakes for credit.
  
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    FR 304 - French Composition and Conversation


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Designed for students who wish to gain a command of spoken and written French. Conducted in French. Prerequisite(s): FR 202 .
  
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    FR 305W - French Thought Across the Centuries I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A survey of French literature, its forms and themes from the medieval period through the French Revolution. Prerequisite(s): one 300-level French course. Prerequisite(s): one 300-level French course. Writing Intensive (W)
  
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    FR 306W - French Thought Across the Centuries II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A survey of French literature, its forms and themes since the French Revolution through the present. Prerequisite(s): one 300-level French course. Writing Intensive (W)
  
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    FR 307 - Intensive Review of French Grammar and Phonetics


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Provides essential grammar review and introduction to French phonetics. Prerequisite(s): FR 202 
  
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    FR 310 - Introduction to French Literature


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Introduction to reading and analyzing literary works with emphasis on the development of writing skills in French. Methods, terminology, and practice of literary interpretation. Concentration on shorter works from diverse genres. Prerequisite(s): one 300-level FR course.
  
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    FR 314 - French Civilizations and Cultures


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A survey of the historical, philosophical, literary, and artistic development of France and/or French-speaking regions, from early times to the present. Prerequisite(s): one 300-level FR course (or with a 300-level FR course), or by departmental permission.
  
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    FR 315 - Introduction to Francophonic Texts


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Builds on reading skills acquired in FR 201  and FR 202  by presenting a variety of texts from many fields of interest: politics, business, literature, history.  Conducted in French. Prerequisite(s): FR 202 
  
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    FR 316W - Topics in French


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    The topics will vary to reflect cadet and professional interests. The goal of this course is to provide information and foster discussion of diverse topics for the French and Francophone world and to reinforce language skills. Taught in French. Note: Retakes for credit. Writing Intensive. Prerequisite(s): one course at a FR300-level.
  
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    FR 335 - Intermediate French Converstion


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Guided discussions designed to increase fluency, improve pronunciation, and acquire vocabulary in French. Prerequisite(s): one 300-level FR course.
  
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    FR 365 - Professional Communication in Government and Enterprise


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Interdisciplinary study of key aspects of technical French language for government and business, together with an exploration of the history, sociology, and culture of professional environments in the French and Francophone worlds. Exploration of cultural and professional relations among Francophone Africa and France, the European Union, and the United States. Prerequisite(s): one 300-level FR course.
  
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    FR 404W - Applied French Grammar and Composition


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Systematic grammar review with extensive practice in writing French. Prerequisite(s): FR 304  or FR 307  plus one additional 300-level FR course. Writing Intensive (W)
  
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    FR 405 - Independent Reading


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Directed readings of major literary works. Research paper is required. Note: Retakes for credit. Prerequisite(s): Permission of the Department Head.
  
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    FR 406 - Independent Reading


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Directed readings of major literary works.   Taught in French.  Research paper is required. Note: Retakes for credit. Prerequisite(s): Permission of the Department Head.
  
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    FR 421 - French Literature and Civilization I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Study of political, social, intellectual, artistic and literary development of French culture during the medieval, Renaissance and early modern periods. Prerequisite(s): FR 310  and one other 300-level course.
  
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    FR 425 - French Literature and Civilization II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Study of political, social, intellectual, artistic and literary developments in French culture, from the French Revolution through the present. Prerequisite(s): FR 310  and one other 300-level FR course.
  
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    FR 430 - Indroduction to Francophone Studies


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Study of the literatures and cultures of French-speaking countries outside of France that may include Africa, the Caribbean, Quebec and South East Asia. Prerequisite(s): FR 310W and one other 300-level FR course.
  
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    FR 435 - Advanced French Converstion


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Guided discussions centered on specific topics. Designed to increase fluency, improve pronunciation, and knowledge of French culture and language. Extended oral presentations. Prerequisite(s): FR 335
  
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    FR 450 - Modern Language Capstone Course


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    The student will choose a topic incorporating an analysis of historical, literary or cultural factors in the major language area - field experience and interdisciplinary topics are strongly encouraged. Upon approval of the faculty adviser, the student will prepare both a research paper and a 20-minute oral presentation. This course is open to first and second class Modern Language majors or minors. The ML Capstone project will be written in the student’s major foreign language, as appropriate, and it will achieve a language rating of “Advanced-High”. All relevant documentation will adhere to MLA specifications. An accepted ML Honors Thesis could substitute for this course.
  
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    FR 455 - France Today


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Social, political, and economic trends from 1939 - present, with emphasis on the period since 1968. Prerequisite(s): two 300-level FR courses.
  
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    FR 460 - Studies in French and Francophone Culture


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Representative topics include: History of Paris, Role of the Family in French Literature and Culture, Interrelationships of the Arts, French-speaking African Culture, Culture of French Canada, Sustainable Development. Retakes for credit.
    courses.
      Prerequisite(s): two 300-level FR courses.
  
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    FR 470 - Special Topics in French


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An advanced topics course that will vary to reflect cadet and professorial interests on a period, theme, author(s), genre or movement. This course fosters a close reading of text and discussion of diverse topics from the French-speaking world to reinforce advanced language and cultural knowledge. Prerequisite(s): FR 310W and one other 300-level FR course.

GEOLOGY

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Department Head: Captain Riester

Requirements for a major in civil engineering are specified in Civil and Environmental Engineering .

  
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    GE 306 - Engineering Geology


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 3
    Credit Hours: 4

    Earth material properties and geological processes as they apply to the solution of engineering problems. Case histories, rich visual imagery, a field trip, and three hours of lab per week assist in fully developing this “Natural Science Elective.” Prerequisite(s): Enrollment in civil engineering or permission of instructor.

GERMAN

Department of Modern Languages and Cultures
Department Head: Colonel Sunnen

All cadets who enter with two or more entrance units in a modern foreign language are given placement tests and are placed in appropriate courses on the basis of the test results combined with their previous high school language coursework, and after consultation with the department head of modern languages.

A single year of a foreign language shall count toward meeting graduation requirements only when the cadet is studying a second language or is taking a language as an elective.

Cadets must demonstrate proficiency in ML 101 in order to be admitted into ML 102. They must, similarly, demonstrate proficiency in ML 102 before enrolling in ML 201, and in ML 201 before enrolling in ML 202/204. Proficiency in ML 202/204 is a prerequisite for admission to 300-level courses. Completion of two 300-level courses or their equivalent is expected before enrollment in any 400 -level course. Once a cadet has completed work at the 202/204 level, he/she may not return to the elementary level course for credit.

Cadets who present four years of a high school language or demonstrate native or near-native language abilities may not enroll at the elementary level of that language. Such students will have the choice of enrolling either in the first semester intermediate level of that language or in the first semester elementary course of a different language.

  
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    GR 303W - Introduction to Contemporary German Culture I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of contemporary German issues including cultural events, travel, economy, politics, education, transportation, and public opinion. Note: Writing Intensive (W). Prerequisite(s): GR 202X .
  
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    GR 304W - Introduction to Contemporary German Culture II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of contemporary German issues focusing on economy and German for business. Note: Writing Intensive (W). Prerequisite(s): GR 202X .
  
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    GR 307 - Literature Survey (1100-1700)


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Authors and works include: the Nibelungenlied, Hartmann von Aue, Martin Luther, Hans Sachs, Andreas Gryphius and others. Prerequisite(s): GR 202X .
  
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    GR 308 - Literature From the Enlightenment to Revolution


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This course treats the literature and philosophy of the Enlightenment, classicism (Goethe, Schiller), romanticism (Kleist, Grimm) and the Zensur that led up to the 1848 revolution. Prerequisite(s): GR 202X .
  
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    GR 316 - Topics in German


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A topics course that varies to reflect cadet and professorial interests. The goal of this course is to provide information and foster discussion of diverse topics from the German-speaking world and to reinforce the language skills of all cadets enrolled. The language of instruction is German. Note: Retakes for credit. Prerequisite(s): GR 202X .
  
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    GR 329 - Soldiers, Orders and War: Views from Central Europe


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A sampling of dramas from Germany, Switzerland, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire on the theme of military life and challenges. Taught in English. This course does not include a foreign language component and cannot be used toward a language requirement. Cadets may not earn credit for both GR 333 and GR 413. Prerequisite(s): None.
  
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    GR 330X - Satire in Germany – Empire, War, Republic 1900-1933


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Focuses on popular satire and analyzes events and caricatures chronologically. The course addresses cultural balance of authority and revolt with humor, as presented by German citizens, writers, and artists. This course is taught in English and cannot be used toward a foreign language requirement. Note: Civilizations & Cultures Course (X). Prerequisite(s): none.
  
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    GR 331X - The Resistance in Nazi Germany: The Best and Brightest and the “Oath-Breakers”


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Designed to examine the opposition to Hitler and the affirmation of the rule of law, which became a firm basis for the modern German military (Bundeswehr).  Literary, historical, and biographical readings and films relate to the Resistance in Nazi Germany and depict life during the dictatorship and the vision - and fate - of those who opposed it.  This course does not include a foreign language component and cannot be used toward a language requirement.
  
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    GR 332X - From Wehrmacht to Bundeswehr: A Tradition Destroyed and Rebuilt


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A focus on the transition from a conquered nation to an ally of NATO and backbone of the European Union.  Students examine historical and literary texts which address the shaping of German culture and identity in the years following the “zero hour” of May, 1945 and the efforts to define Germany and the role of its military forces, from the division in 1949 to the reunification in 1990.  This course does not include a foreign language component and cannot be used toward a language requirement.
  
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    GR 405 - Seminar in German Literature I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Directed readings of major literary works; written reports and a research paper required. Taught in German. Note: Retakes for credit. Prerequisite(s): Permission of the department head.
  
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    GR 406 - Seminar in German Literature II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Directed readings of major literary works; written reports and a research paper required. Taught in German. Note: Retakes for credit. Prerequisite(s): Permission of the department head.
  
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    GR 411 - Vienna, Berlin, and Between: Germany and Austria From 1911-1950


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of Hermann Hesse, Robert Musil, Ernst von Salomon, Hugo von Hofmannsthal, among others. This course focuses on how Austrians and Germans saw the world during the first half of the 20th century. Prerequisite(s): 6 hours of 300 level German.
  
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    GR 412 - German On Both Sides of the Iron Curtain


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A continuation of GR 411 . Students will study the unique situation of the two Germanys during the Cold War. Emphasis on Heinrich Böll and Ulrich Plenzdorf. Prerequisite(s): 6 hours of 300 level German.
  
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    GR 413 - Germany and the Military


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This course treats depictions of military life and war in literature with emphasis on German traditions and attitudes. Authors include Erich Maria Remarque and Hans Hellmuth Kirst. Prerequisite(s): 6 hours of 300 level German.
  
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    GR 420W - Advanced Conversation and Composition


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Students examine, discuss, and debate current events of political and military topics, such as the restructuring and deployment of the Bundesweht and Germany’s role in the European Union. E-portfolios will constitute an important part of this course. Prerequisite(s): 6 hours of 300 level German. Writing Intensive (W).
  
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    GR 421 - Immigration to and From Germany Since 1850


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Readings will focus on immigration to the New World, starting in the 19th century, and the influx of immigrants to Germany after World War II. Prerequisite(s): 6 hours of 300 level German.
  
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    GR 450 - Modern Language Capstone Course


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    The student will choose a topic incorporating an analysis of historical, literary or cultural factors in the major language area - field experience and interdisciplinary topics are strongly encouraged. Upon approval of the faculty adviser, the student will prepare both a research paper and a 20-minute oral presentation. This course is required of all Modern Language majors and is only open to first and second class Modern Language majors. The ML Capstone project will be written in the student’s major foreign language, as appropriate, and it will achieve a language rating of “Advanced-High”. All relevant documentation will adhere to MLA specifications. An accepted ML Honors Thesis could substitute for this course.

HISTORY

Department of History
Department Head: Colonel Wilkinson

Requirements for a major in history are specified in History .

  
  •  

    HI 103 - World History I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of the world’s major civilizations prior to 1500, concentrating on their primary values and institutions, and their cultural contacts. Particular attention devoted to the Middle East, China, India, the Mediterranean world, and Western Europe.
  
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    HI 104 - World History II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of the world’s major civilizations since 1500, the rise and expanding influence of the West, and the interaction between the West and non-West.
  
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    HI 200 - Introduction to Historical Methods


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This course develops essential skills for historians such as: critical reading and thinking, basic research methods and the fundamentals of organizing, writing and documenting history papers in accordance with the standards of the discipline. Subject matter varies. Required for majors; restricted to majors. Normally taken in the third year. Note: A grade of “C” or better is required as a prerequisite to one of the 300-level methodologically intensive courses.
  
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    HI 205 - History of the United States I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A general survey of American history beginning with the Colonial Period and ending with 1877. The approach is broad with attention being given to political, diplomatic, constitutional, intellectual, social, and economic trends. Required of history majors and minors. May be taken as a writing-intensive course when offered (205W).
  
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    HI 205W - History of the United States I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A general survey of American history beginning with the Colonial Period and ending with 1877. The approach is broad with attention being given to political, diplomatic, constitutional, intellectual, social, and economic trends. Note: Required of history majors and minors. Writing Intensive Course.
  
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    HI 206 - History of the United States II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A general survey of American history covering the period 1877 to the present. The approach is broad with attention being given to political, diplomatic, constitutional, intellectual, social, and economic trends. Required of history majors and minors.
  
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    HI 210-299 - Special Courses


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Occasional courses on special topics in history may be offered by visiting faculty members or by departmental faculty. These courses fulfill regional distribution requirements if their regional category is included in the course announcement before registration.
  
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    HI 223 - Islam in North America and Western Europe


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Islam is believed to be growing faster than any religion in the United States today and is the second largest religion in Europe.  This course will examine the past and contemporary history of Muslims in the West, including the emergence and development of Muslim communities and institutions, Islamic devotional life and education, the impact of Muslims’ immigration into Western societies.  Attention will be given to the interaction between Muslim and Christian communities and to the official policies of Western governments toward their Muslim citizens and residents.  This is a Methodologically Intensive course intended primarily for History majors.
  
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    HI 301 - Ancient Egypt


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An upper-level survey course covering the history of Egypt from the pre-dynastic period through the Roman occupation. Note: Region: Africa/Asia/Latin America. May be offered as 301X (Civilizations & Cultures), 301W (Writing Intensive), or both 301WX.
  
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    HI 302 - Ancient Greece


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An upper-level survey course which covers the Greek world from the Trojan War to the death of Cleopatra. Note: Region: Europe or Africa/Asia/Latin America, but not both. May be offered as 302X (Civilizations & Cultures).
  
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    HI 303 - Ancient Rome


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An upper-level survey course which covers the Roman world from the early Iron Age settlements in Italy to Rome’s conquest of the Mediterranean and the fall of the empire. Note: Region: Europe or Africa/Asia/Latin America, but not both. May be offered as 303X (Civilizations & Cultures).
  
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    HI 304 - The Medieval World


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An upper-level survey of eastern and western Europe from the fall of Rome to the eve of the Renaissance, and Islam as it impacted these areas. Note: Region: Europe or Africa/Asia/Latin America.  May be offered as 304X (Civilizations & Cultures), 304W (Writing Intensive), or both 304WX.
  
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    HI 307 - English History I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of English history from Stonehenge to the Glorious Revolution of 1688. The focus is on social, cultural, and constitutional history, as they illuminate political trends. Note: Region: Europe.
  
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    HI 308 - English History II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of English history from 1688 to the present. The focus is on England’s transition to an industrial democracy without a revolution, Victorianism, and the rise to global influence and subsequent decline. Note: Region: Europe.
  
  •  

    HI 309 - History of the Holocaust


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of the causes, events, and results of the Nazi attempt to destroy the Jews of Europe. Topics to be considered are: the history of the Jewish people; the causes and history of anti-Semitism; the Nazi rise to power and persecution of the Jews; the actions and motives of Holocaust perpetrators, victims, and bystanders; and the impact of the Holocaust on contemporary history. May be offered as a writing intensive course (309W) at the Instructor’s discretion. Note: Region: Europe.
  
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    HI 310X - War and Society in Modern China


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This course introduces cadets to the 100-year cycle of civil war and international conflict that China experienced from the Opium War until the Communist victory of 1949. Major topics include warlords, imperialism, the Sino-Japanese wars of the 1930s, World War II in China and the Communist victory in China’s civil war. We will study not only the experience of the war for combatants and citizens, but also the domestic and international causes and ramifications of conflict. Note: Region: Asia/Africa/Latin America. Civilizations and Cultures Course (X). Prerequisite(s): HI 104 .
  
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    HI 311 - History of the Cold War


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This course surveys the Cold War from the origins of great power confrontation in the World War II era, through such key episodes as the Cuban Missile Crisis, the construction of the Berlin Wall, the Prague Spring, Detente, and its decline. We will emphasize shifting historical interpretation of the era, as well as the assessment and employment of primary source documents in historical analysis. Students are required to write a term paper combining a historiographical review with research on one major episode. The course may be team-taught to provide multiple perspectives. Region: Europe/U.S./Latin America-Asia-Africa depending on topic. Methodologically intensive. Prerequisite(s): HI majors must complete HI 200  with a minimum grade of C. Non-HI majors require permission of instructor.
  
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    HI 312 - Introduction to the History of Islam


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    The course traces the history of Islam, beginning with the life of the Prophet Mohammad and the formative period, along with its medieval achievements and  modern situation.  Aspects of analysis include the historical development, social institutions, intellectual traditions, and religious system of Islam.  We will explore this history using a range of primary and secondary materials including religious texts, historic chronicles and works of fiction.
  
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    HI 313 - The United States, 1900-1945


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A comprehensive study of the United States during the Progressive Era, World War I, the 1920s, and the Great Depression. Note: Region: United States.
  
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    HI 314 - The United States Since 1945


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A comprehensive study of the United States from World War II through recent years. Note: Region: United States.
  
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    HI 315 - The History of Everyday Life


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Social history is an approach to the past that deemphasizes the study of “famous men, great ideas, and big events” in favor of description and analysis of the lives of ordinary people of the past and the social and economic structures that shaped their lives. This course introduces students to sources and methods for the study of “history from the bottom up” and focuses on topics such as family life, courtship and marriage, sex and death, patterns of work and leisure, gender relations, childhood and youth, and old age. Note: Region: Europe or United States, but not both. Methodologically intensive. Prerequisite(s): HI majors must complete HI 200  with a minimum grade of C. Non-HI majors require permission of instructor.
  
  •  

    HI 316 - Food and Hunger in History


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This course explores themes and issues relating to social and cultural dimensions of food and food shortages in past times. The course ranges widely across time and space and adopts an explicitly comparative approach. Topics examined include the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture, the historical development of food production and distribution systems, the emergence of staple crops as commodities, and the causes and consequences of food shortages. The course is open to students of all majors who have passed both semesters of World History (HI 103 and HI 104). Prerequisite(s): HI 103  and HI 104 . This course may be offered as a “Civilizations and Cultures” course (HI 316X), a “Writing Intensive” course (316W), or both (316WX).
  
  •  

    HI 317 - The Great Depression and the New Deal


    This methodologically intensive course will focus on United States history from the origins of the Great Depression to the end of the New Deal. Topics will include the political, economic, social, and cultural history of the era. Specific emphasis will be placed on the origins and effects of the Great Depression, the stock market crash, and the nature of the institutional responses offered by Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal. Cadets will engage both historical and historiographical topics while completing a significant research project. Note: Geographical Region: United States. Methodologically Intensive. Prerequisite(s): HI majors must complete HI 200  with a minimum grade of C. Non-HI majors require permission of instructor.
  
  •  

    HI 318 - George C. Marshall and the American Century


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A methodologically-intensive course designed to develop research and analytical skills through the intensive study of the career of General of the Army George C. Marshall, VMI class of 1901. Class will focus on teaching students how to find, analyze, organize, and present primary and secondary sources material. In doing so, student will explore the manuscript collections at the VMI archives and George C. Marshall Research Library. The course will explore major trends in U.S. military history and foreign relations from the Spanish-American War (1898) to the Korean War (1950-1953). Note:  Members of the First Class MAY NOT enroll in this course. Region: United States. Methodologically Intensive. Prerequisite(s): HI majors must complete HI 200  with a minimum grade of C. Non-HI majors require permission of instructor
  
  •  

    HI 319 - African American Experience


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A general introduction to the African American experience in the United States beginning in Africa in the 15th century and continuing through to the late 20th century. Note: Region: United States. Methodologically intensive. Prerequisite(s): HI majors must complete HI 200  with a minimum grade of C. Non-HI majors require permission of instructor.
  
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    HI 321 - The Old South


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    The social, intellectual, economic, and political history of the American South before the Civil War. Major topics include the plantation system, slavery, and the evolution of southern sectionalism. Note: Region: United States.
  
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    HI 322 - The Civil War and Reconstruction


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    The causes and course of the American Civil War and the issues and consequences of Reconstruction. Note: Region: United States.
  
  •  

    HI 323 - History of the South From 1865


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Political, social, economic, cultural, and demographic history of the Southern United States from 1865 to the present, with emphasis on interpretations of Southern history by twentieth-century historians. Topics include Reconstruction, segregation and disfranchisement, the “New South Creed” and industrialization, the Civil Rights Movement, and Southern popular culture. Note: Region: United States. Methodologically intensive. Prerequisite(s): HI majors must complete HI 200  with a minimum grade of C and HI 206 . Non-HI majors require permission of instructor.
  
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    HI 324 - American Foreign Relations to 1919


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An upper level survey of American foreign relations from the founding of the nation through World War I. Emphasis will be placed on the securing of American independence, continental expansion of the mid 19th century and the global expansion of American interests in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Considers the interplay of diplomacy, security issues, economics and culture in American relations with the world. Note: Region: United States.
 

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