Oct 27, 2021  
2018-2019 Academic Catalogue 
    
2018-2019 Academic Catalogue [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

Courses of Instruction


Course Numbering System. Each subject is identified by a symbol made up of two parts. The first part is an abbreviation denoting the general field of study. The second part is a number denoting the particular subject. The first digit indicates the year in which the course is usually taken and, therefore, the level of instruction.

Credit. The unit of academic credit used at the Virginia Military Institute is the semester hour. In general a semester hour represents one hour of classroom work (lecture or recitation) or one period (two or three hours) of laboratory or supervised research or field work per week during a single semester. Thus a course that meets for three class hours and one laboratory period each week during one semester usually carries credit for four semester hours.

In the following course descriptions the figures on the title lines indicate, in order, the class hours per week, the laboratory or field work hours per week, and the semester hours credit. For example, the figures “3—2—4” mean that the class meets three times a week for one-hour classroom sessions and has two hours of laboratory, supervised research, or field work each week, and that the course carries four semester hours of credit.

 

AEROSPACE STUDIES

Department of Aerospace Studies
Department Head: Colonel Biggs

Curriculum is delivered in accordance with applicable service regulation and instruction.

  
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    AS 103 - The Foundation of the United States Air Force I


    Lecture Hours: 1
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 1

    Part I of a survey course designed to introduce students to the United States Air Force and provide an overview of the basic characteristics, missions and organization of the Air Force.  Prerequisite(s): Must meet AFROTC membership requirements and be seeking a commission.  Corequisite(s): AS 113   When Offered: Fall Semester Only
  
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    AS 104 - The Foundation of the United States Air Force II


    Lecture Hours: 1
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 1

    Part II of a survey course designed to introduce students to the United States Air Force and provide an overview of the basic characteristics, missions and organization of the Air Force. Corequisite(s): AS 114   When Offered: Spring Semester Only
  
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    AS 113 - Leadership Lab for AS 103


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 1
    Credit Hours: 0

    Mandatory leadership lab that allows cadets to practice and demonstrate mastery of the leadership skills essential to an Air Force officer. When Offered: Fall Semester Only
  
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    AS 114 - Leadership Lab for AS 104


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 1
    Credit Hours: 0

    Mandatory leadership lab that allows cadets to practice and demonstrate mastery of the leadership skills essential to an Air Force officer. When Offered: Spring Semester Only
  
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    AS 203 - Evolution of USAF Air and Space Power I


    Lecture Hours: 1
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 1

    Part I of a course featuring topics on Air Force heritage and leaders; the introduction to air and space power through examination of competencies and functions; and continued application of communication skills.  Its purpose is to instill an appreciation of the development and employment of air power, and to motivate students to transition from AFROTC cadet to Air force ROTC officer candidate. Corequisite(s): AS 213   When Offered: Fall Semester Only
  
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    AS 204 - Evolution of USAF Air and Space Power II


    Lecture Hours: 1
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 1


    Part II of a course featuring topics on Air Force heritage and leaders; the introduction to air and space power through examination of competencies and functions; and continued application of communication skills.  Its purpose is to instill an appreciation of the development and employment of air power, and to motivate students to transition from AFROTC cadet to Air force ROTC officer candidate. Corequisite(s): AS 214   When Offered: Spring Semester Only
  
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    AS 213 - Leadership Lab for AS 203


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 1
    Credit Hours: 0

    Mandatory leadership lab that allows cadets to practice and demonstrate mastery of the leadership skills essential to an Air Force officer. When Offered: Fall Semester Only
  
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    AS 214 - Leadership Lab for AS 204


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 1
    Credit Hours: 0

    Mandatory leadership lab that allows cadets to practice and demonstrate mastery of the leadership skills essential to an Air Force officer.  Emphasis is placed on preparing cadets for Field Training. When Offered: Spring Semester Only
  
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    AS 303 - Leadership Studies I


    Lecture Hours: 2
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 2

    Part I of a course that teaches cadets advanced skills in management and leadership.  Special emphasis is placed on enhancing leadership skills.  Corequisite(s): AS 313  for seeking/commissioing cadets or LS 350  for non-commissioing cadets.  Failure to take LS 350 with ROTC course will result in a grade of F in the ROTC course. When Offered: Fall Semester Only
  
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    AS 304 - Leadership Studies II


    Lecture Hours: 2
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 2

    Part II of a course that teaches cadets advanced skills in management and leadership.  Special emphasis is placed on enhancing leadership skills.  Corequisite(s): AS 314  for seeking/comissioning cadets or LS 351  for non-commissioning cadets.  Failure to take LS 351 with ROTC course will result in a grade of F in ROTC course. When Offered: Spring Semester Only
  
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    AS 313 - Leadership Lab for AS 303


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 1
    Credit Hours: 0

    Mandatory leadership lab that allows cadets to practice and demonstrate mastery of the leadership skills essential to an Air Force officer.  Only Commission seeking cadets take AS 313.  Non-commissioning cadets enrolled in AS303 must take LS 350. When Offered: Fall Semester Only
  
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    AS 314 - Leadership Lab for AS 304


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 1
    Credit Hours: 0

    Mandatory leadership lab that allows cadets to practice and demonstrate mastery of the leadership skills essential to an Air Force officer.  Only Commission seeking cadets take AS 314.  Non-commissioning cadets enrolled in AS304 must take LS 351. When Offered: Spring Semester Only
  
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    AS 403 - National Security Affairs and Preparation for Active Duty I


    Lecture Hours: 2
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 2

    Part I of a course designed for college seniors that gives them the foundation to understand their role as military officers in American society.  It is an overview of the complex social and political issues facing the military profession and requires a measure of sophistication commensurate with the senior college level. Corequisite(s): AS 413  for seeking/commissioning cadets or LS 350  for non-commissioning cadets.  Failure to take LS 350 with ROTC course will result in a grade of F in the course. When Offered: Fall Semester Only
  
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    AS 404 - National Security Affairs and Preparation for Active Duty II


    Lecture Hours: 2
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 2

    Part II of a course designed for college seniors that gives them the foundation to understand their role as military officers in American society.  It is an overview of the complex social and political issues facing the military profession and requires a measure of sophistication commensurate with the senior college level. Corequisite(s): AS 414  for seeking/commissioning cadets or LS 451  for non-commissioning cadets.  Failure to take LS 451 with ROTC course will result in a grade of F in the ROTC course. When Offered: Spring Semester Only
  
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    AS 413 - Leadership Lab for AS 403


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 1
    Credit Hours: 0

    Mandatory leadership lab that allows cadets to practice and demonstrate mastery of the leadership skills essential to an Air Force officer.  Only Commission seeking cadets take AS 413.  Non-commissioning cadets enrolled in AS403 must take LS 450. When Offered: Fall Semester Only
  
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    AS 414 - Leadership Lab for AS 404


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 1
    Credit Hours: 0

    Mandatory leadership lab that allows cadets to practice and demonstrate mastery of the leadership skills essential to an Air Force officer.  Only Commission seeking cadets take AS 414.  Non-commissioning cadets enrolled in AS404 must take LS 451. When Offered: Spring Semester Only

APPLIED MATHEMATICS

Department of Applied Mathematics
Department Head: Colonel Siemers

Requirements for a major in applied mathematics are specified in Applied Mathematics .

Note: All cadets must have at least six hours of mathematics. MA 114 does not fulfill a mathematics requirement and cannot be used as elective credit.

  
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    MA 101 - Math that Matters I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    In MA-101, cadets will learn mathematical concepts from statistics, including data analysis, regression, probability, sampling, statistical significance, and hypothesis testing.
  
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    MA 102 - Math that Matters II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    In MA-102, cadets will learn mathematical concepts of mathematical modeling and basic calculus, including rates of change and area calculation. In MA-102, cadets will also work in pairs to create a poster that will be presented. Prerequisite(s): MA 101  
  
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    MA 103 - Matrix Algebra


    Lecture Hours: 2
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 2

    Introduction to matrices. Matrix determinant and inverse. Elementary transformations and systems of linear equations: existence and uniqueness of solution, Cramer’s Rule, Gaussian elimination with back-substitution. Introduction to linear transformations: eigenvalues and eigenvectors, matrix trace.
  
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    MA 105 - Introduction to Probability and Statistics I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of problem solving skills, counting principles, finite probability theory, descriptive statistics and the binomial and normal distributions. Computer/calculator applications will be chosen to enhance understanding of the topics.
  
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    MA 106 - Introduction to Probability and Statistics II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A continuation of MA 105 . Topics include random variables, correlation, regression, confidence intervals, and hypothesis testing. Computer/calculator applications will be chosen to enhance understanding of the topics. Prerequisite(s): MA 105 .
  
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    MA 110 - Mathematical Software


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Introduction to the use of mathematical software packages Matlab and Mathcad in applied mathematics, engineering and physics.
  
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    MA 114 - Pre-Calculus Mathematics


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Equations and inequalities; functions and their graphs; polynomial and rational functions; exponential and logarithmic functions; trigonometric functions. Required only for those cadets who plan to take MA 123 .    Beginning with the Class of 2014, this course is only offered on a pass/fail basis and cannot be used towards program requirements. Note: All cadets must have at least six hours of mathematics. MA 114 does not fulfill a mathematics requirement and cannot be used as elective credit.
  
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    MA 123 - Calculus & Analytic Geometry I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Plane analytic geometry with single variable differential calculus. Limits, derivatives, applications of derivatives, and derivatives of transcendental functions and basic integration formulas. Prerequisite(s): Placement Test or Pass Grade in MA 114 .
  
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    MA 124 - Calculus & Analytic Geometry II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A continuation of MA 123 . Integration and its applications, methods of integration, L’Hopital’s Rule, improper integrals, infinite sequences and series, Taylor Polynomials. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in MA 123 .
  
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    MA 125 - Quantitative Methods I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of functions, linear and nonlinear models, systems of linear equations, matrices and applications, and an introduction to the mathematics of finance.
  
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    MA 126 - Quantitative Methods II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of the basic concepts of differentiation and integration to include partial derivatives and the Method of Lagrange emphasizing the techniques and applications relevant to business and economics. Prerequisite(s): C or better in MA 125 .
  
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    MA 215 - Calculus With Analytic Geometry III


    Lecture Hours: 4
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 4

    A continuation of MA 124 ; Conic sections, parametric equations, polar coordinates, vectors, vector-valued functions, partial derivatives, improper and multiple integrals. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in MA 124 .
  
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    MA 220 - Probability & Statistics for Engineers & Scientists


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This is a calculus-based treatment of probability and statistics designed for scientists and engineers. Topics would include: classification of data by graphical and numerical methods; intro to probability to include definitions and theorems; discrete random variables including binomial and Poisson distributions, expectation and variance calculations; continuous random variables to include uniform, exponential, normal, Weibull, Gamma, and Chi-squared distributions; hypothesis testing and least-squares linear regression. Prerequisite(s): MA 124 .
  
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    MA 301 - Higher Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Vector analysis, infinite series convergence, Taylor and Maclaurin Series, Fourier Series and series solutions to differential equations. Prerequisite(s): MA 215  and MA 311 .
  
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    MA 303 - Advanced Calculus I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A rigorous treatment of the following topics: limits, continuity, derivatives of real valued functions of a single real variable, Rolle’s Theorem and the mean value theorem, L’Hopital’s rule, sequences and series. Prerequisite(s): MA 124 .
  
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    MA 304 - Advanced Calculus II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Implicit-function theorems; Jacobians; vector and scalar point functions; gradient; divergence; line, surface and volume integrals. Prerequisite(s): MA 303 .
  
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    MA 305 - Elementary Linear Algebra


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Vectors; matrices; determinants; systems of linear equations; linear transformations. A study of the theoretical and computational aspects pertaining to matrices and vector spaces, including: systems of linear equations, Gaussian elimination, LU decomposition, determinants, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, linear independence, span, bases, linear transformations, inner product spaces and least square approximation. Computer software packages will be introduced and utilized as part of the course. Prerequisite(s): MA 103  or permission of the instructor.
  
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    MA 306 - Elementary Number Theory


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Properties of integers, prime numbers, number theoretic functions, congruencies. Diophantine equations. Prerequisite(s): Permission of the instructor.
  
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    MA 310 - Matlab Programming


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Advanced MATLAB functionality, geometric techniques (Monte Carlo, random walks, and Levy Flights), and the brute force, nearest neighbor, simulated annealing, and genetic algorithms applied to the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). The course concludes with the development of a TSP graphical user interface (GUI) that integrates these algorithms. Prerequisite(s): MA 110 , ME 203 , or PY 223 .
  
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    MA 311 - Elementary Differential Equations


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Ordinary differential equations; applications; Laplace transforms; Systems of ODEs. Prerequisite(s): MA 124 .
  
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    MA 319 - Mathematical Methods of Operations Research


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Mathematical modeling, linear programming, allocation models, network models, scheduling models. Prerequisite(s): MA 103  and MA 124 .
  
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    MA 320 - Mathematical Modeling


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This course considers a variety of mathematical models in the physical, life, and social sciences. In addition to analyzing models, a major component of the course is using computational tools to construct mathematical models and test their validity against empirical data. Prerequisite(s): MA 110  and MA 311  
  
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    MA 326 - Probability and Statistics


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Simple, discrete, and continuous probability distributions. Sampling from probability distributions and finite populations. Prerequisite(s): MA 215  
  
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    MA 330WX - History of Mathematics


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This is a topics course in the history of mathematics beginning with the ancients. This is a guided tour of the most important aspects from the beginnings of recorded mathematical activity through the development of calculus. Topics beyond the development of the calculus will be covered as time permits. Coverage includes the motives, influences, and methods affecting the development of algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and calculus in Mesopotamian, Egyptian, Greek, Islamic, Indian, and European civilizations. Prerequisite(s): MA 123  or permission of instructor. Preference is given to AM Majors and Minors. Note: Writing Intensive (W) and Civilizations & Cultures Course (X).
  
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    MA 331X - History of Mathematics II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    In this course, we consider the works and lives of mathematicians in Europe and the United States. We focus on major developments during the time frame from the development of the calculus in the late 1600s to the present day. We study mathematical contributions to fields such as geometry, number theory, and calculus as well as to physics and engineering and how each culture has supported mathematical discovery. Prerequisite(s): MA 124   Note: Civilizations & Cultures Course (X).
  
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    MA 401 - Modern Algebra


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Basic algebraic properties of groups, rings and fields.
  
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    MA 405 - Statistics


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A continuation of MA 326 ; probability distributions, estimation, hypothesis testing, regression analysis and techniques of experimental design. Prerequisite(s): MA 326 .
  
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    MA 407 - Complex Variables


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Properties of complex numbers; analytic functions; power series, residues and poles; Laurent series. Prerequisite(s): MA 215 
  
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    MA 415 - Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Introduction to the mathematics of nonlinear dynamics of 1-dimesional and 2-dimesional models including: Fixed points, Linearization, Stability, Bifurcations (Saddle Node, Transcritical, Pitchfork and Hopf), Limit Cycles, Hysteresis, Strange Attractors, Liapunov Exponents and Fractals. Prerequisite(s): MA 311  
  
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    MA 419 - Intro to Non-Linear Optimization


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This course is a continuation of MA-319 to include a review of linear programming using the Simplex algorithm & LINDO software; review of multivariable calculus topics; and a survey of various techniques for optimizing functions that are not in the realm of linear programming.  The Kuhn-Tucker conditions are optimality are discovered.  Techniques including branch & bound for integer programming and search methods for quadratic programming and other non-linear problems are covered. Prerequisite(s): MA 319  and MA 215 
  
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    MA 426 - Intro to Stochastic Process


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This course introduces the student to stochastic models, discrete- and continuous-time stochastic processes, point and counting processes, Poisson counting processes, compound Poisson processes, non-stationary Poisson processes and Markov chains. Prerequisite(s): MA 326  
  
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    MA 432 - Numerical Analysis


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Numerical interpolation; error analysis; numerical solution of ordinary and partial differential equations and simultaneous linear equations. Recommended for cadets contemplating a career in computing. Prerequisite(s): MA 215 , MA 311 , and one of the following: MA 110 , ME 203 , or PY 223 
  
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    MA 433 - Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Introduction to MATLAB. Numerical methods for ordinary differential equations: Taylor series, Euler and Modified Euler, Runge-Kutta. Multi-step methods, Milne’s method, Adams- Moulton method. Convergence criteria and comparison of methods. Numerical methods for partial differential equations. Convergence, stability and consistency. Prerequisite(s): MA 311  or consent of instructor.
  
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    MA 451-459 - Independent Study


    Lecture Hours: 1-3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 1-3

    Selected areas such as topology, geometry, algebra, real analysis. Recommended for cadets contemplating doctoral programs in mathematics. Prerequisite(s): consent of department head.
  
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    MA 471-479 - Topics in Mathematics


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Selected Topics in Mathematics Such As Graph theory, Topology, Dynamic Systems, Partial Differential Equations, Spline Approximation and Operator theory. Prerequisite(s): Permission of Department Head.
  
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    MA 490W - Research Practicum in Applied Mathematics


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Mathematics coursework.  Prerequisite(s): 28 credit hours in Math coursework or First Class Standing. Writing Intensive (W)
  
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    MA 495 - Advanced Research Projects in Applied Mathematics


    Lecture Hours: 1-3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 1-3

    Taken for one credit, this course is intended to guide cadets through the Mathematics Competition in Modeling (MCM) contest. Taken for three credits, this course includes the MCM preparation and the extension to further research projects already established within MA 490W  or other instructor-approved research projects. Prerequisite(s): MA 490W  

ARABIC

Department of Modern Languages and Cultures
Department Head: Colonel Sunnen

All cadets who enter with two or more entrance units in a modern foreign language are given placement tests and are placed in appropriate courses on the basis of the test results combined with their previous high school language coursework, and after consultation with the department head of modern languages.

A single year of a foreign language shall count toward meeting graduation requirements only when the cadet is studying a second language or is taking a language as an elective.

Cadets must demonstrate proficiency in ML 101 in order to be admitted into ML 102. They must, similarly, demonstrate proficiency in ML 102 before enrolling in ML 201, and in ML 201 before enrolling in ML 202/204. Proficiency in ML 202/204 is a prerequisite for admission to 300-level courses. Completion of two 300-level courses or their equivalent is expected before enrollment in any 400 -level course. Once a cadet has completed work at the 202/204 level, he/she may not return to the elementary level course for credit.

Cadets who present four years of a high school language or demonstrate native or near-native language abilities may not enroll at the elementary level of that language. Such students will have the choice of enrolling either in the first semester intermediate level of that language or in the first semester elementary course of a different language.

  
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    AR 101 - Elementary Arabic I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An introduction to the fundamentals of Arabic. Primary emphasis on the acquisition of basic language skills (comprehending, speaking, reading, and writing) within the context of culture and civilizations. Secondary emphasis on the cultures where Arabic is spoken. Intended for beginners with no previous experience in the language.
  
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    AR 102 - Elementary Arabic II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A continuation of AR 101 . Prerequisite(s): AR 101 .
  
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    AR 201 - Intermediate Arabic I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A continuation and systematic review of structural principles and an introduction to the reading and discussion of cultural materials and texts with the aim of improving the four basic language skills. Conducted as much as possible in Arabic. Prerequisite(s): AR 102 .
  
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    AR 202 - Intermediate Arabic II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A continuation of AR 201  with emphasis on writing. This course is intended to consolidate the basic language skills and to prepare the student for advanced work in Arabic. Conducted as much as possible in Arabic. Readings based on civilization and culture. Prerequisite(s): AR 201 .
  
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    AR 301W - Arabic Composition and Conversation I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Designed to improve students’ spoken and written command of Arabic. Discussions, oral reports, and writing assignments include topics in Arabic civilizations and cultural history. Conducted mainly in Arabic. Prerequisite(s): AR 202  Writing Intensive (W)
  
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    AR 302W - Arabic Composition and Conversation II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A continuation of  . Prerequisite(s):  . Writing Intensive (W)
  
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    AR 314 - Arabic Civilizations and Cultures


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A survey of the history, literature, educational systems and values of the Arab Word. The course will be based on readings from contemporary sources: Short stories, magazines, newspapers, literary works and legal documents. The course is designed to build on the reading and writing skills of   and AR 302W . It is also intended to enhance cadets’ cultural awareness of contemporary issues, which affect the Arabic speaking world and the United States. Prerequisite(s):  , AR 302W .
  
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    AR 315 - Arabic for the Media


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Emphasizes written and aural comprehension of Arabic media (newspapers, journals, radio and television, news broadcasts, and documentaries). The goal is to introduce and consolidate lexical items which commonly occur in the media and in economic and scientific texts. The principal language of instruction is Arabic. Prerequisite(s): Two AR 300’s.
  
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    AR 316 - Topics in Arabic


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Information and discussion of diverse topics from the Arabic-speaking world. The principal language of instruction is Arabic. Note: Retakes for credit. Prerequisite(s): Two AR 300’s.
  
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    AR 405 - Independent Readings


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Directed readings of major literary works. Conducted almost exclusively in Arabic. Note: Retakes for credit. Prerequisite(s): Completion of at least 9 hours beyond AR 202 or permission of the instructor and department head.
  
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    AR 407 - Advanced Arabic Grammar and Syntax


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A systematic study of Arabic grammar and syntax. Emphasis also on vocabulary development and study of idiomatic expression. Prerequisite(s): Two AR 300’s.
  
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    AR 408 - Arabic Literature of the 19th Century


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of major movements and writers of the 19th century with special emphasis on Romantic poetry and prose. Conducted in Arabic. Emphasis on developing reading and writing skills. A research paper is required. Prerequisite(s): Two AR 300’s.
  
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    AR 409 - Arabic Literature of the 20th Century


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A study of major writers and poets of the 20th century with special emphasis on Naguib Mahfouz’s Trilogy. A research paper is required. Prerequisite(s): Two AR 300’s.
  
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    AR 410 - Advanced Arabic


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Aimed at cadet acquisition of proficiency in Modern Standard Arabic. Audiovisual materials and authentic Arabic Texts will be the main sources of study. Students will be exposed to and expected to master a wide range of different texts, including excerpts from the Qur’an, newspaper articles, classical poetry and prose, modern fiction, and essays. Prerequisite(s): Two AR 300s.
  
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    AR 418 - Arabic for Business


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An introduction to Business Arabic. Includes a review of the grammar and syntax of the Arabic language. The study of Arabic texts relevant to business and management practices in different Arab counties will provide cadets with a general cultural background of Arabic countries. Prerequisite(s): Two AR 300’s.
  
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    AR 420 - Arabic Poetry


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A survey of Arabic poetry from the advent of Islam to the present. Excerpts from the major works of prominent poets are studied for form and historical significance. Conducted in Arabic. Research paper required. Prerequisite(s): Two AR 300s.
  
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    AR 450 - Modern Language Capstone Course


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    The student will choose a topic incorporating an analysis of historical, literary or cultural factors in the major language area - field experience and interdisciplinary topics are strongly encouraged. Upon approval of the faculty adviser, the student will prepare both a research paper and a 20-minute oral presentation. This course is only open to first and second class Modern Language majors or minors. The ML Capstone project will be written in the student’s major foreign language, as appropriate, and it will achieve a language rating of “Advanced- High”. All relevant documentation will adhere to MLA specifications. An accepted ML Honors Thesis could substitute for this course.
  
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    AR 470 - Special Topics in Arabic


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An advanced topics course that will vary to reflect cadet and professorial interest. This course fosters a close reading of text and discussion of diverse topics from the Arab world to reinforce advanced language and cultural knowledge. Prerequisite(s): Two AR 300s.
  
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    AR 481 - Survey of Moroccan Culture and Society


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A Moroccan history and civilization course during the VMI summer abroad program in Morocco. This course is primarily a culture class designed to educate students on Moroccan history through on-site excursions to historical places of interest with a guided tour. The course includes invited guest lectures by Moroccan academics. Topics cover Moroccan society such as the educational system, government relations, religion, Berber history, superstitions, and gender roles in Morocco among others. This course does not include a foreign language component and cannot be used toward a language requirement.

ASTRONOMY

Department of Physics and Astronomy
Department Head: Colonel Hodges

Requirements for a major in physics are specified in Physics and Astronomy .

  
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    AT 170 - The Universe


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A one semester introductory general astronomy course for non-science majors. Topics covered include observations of the night sky, the solar system and its contents, the sun and the nature of stars, stellar evolution, galaxies and cosmology. Prerequisite(s): none
  
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    AT 201 - Introductory Astronomy I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    An introductory course covering topics in modern astronomy. Topics include spherical astronomy, observational instruments, photometric concepts and radiation, celestial mechanics, and the solar system. Prerequisite(s): MA 124  or permission of the instructor.
  
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    AT 202 - Introductory Astronomy II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A continuation of AT 201 . Topics include stellar spectra, binary stars, stellar structure, the Sun, stellar evolution, variable and compact stars, the interstellar medium, galaxies, and cosmology. Prerequisite(s): A grade of C or higher in AT 201  and MA 124  or permission of the instructor.
  
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    AT 301 - Observational Techniques


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 2
    Credit Hours: 4

    Designed to provide a survey of astronomical tools and techniques used to obtain and understand astronomical data. Emphasis placed on photoelectric photometry to measure brightnesses and colors of variable stars. Other topics will include astronomical photography, spectroscopy, positional astronomy, and electronics for astronomy. Assignments will include some use of the computer, and the observatory’s 20-inch reflecting telescope will be used with various instruments. (Offered first semester only.) Note: Satisfies core curriculum science requirement. Prerequisite(s): AT 201  or permission of the instructor. When Offered: Offered every other year in fall.
  
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    AT 306 - Introductory Astrophysics


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Beginning with a review of basic astronomical concepts and data, this course examines the physics of celestial objects. Topics include stellar atmospheres and interiors, star formation and evolution, pulsating stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, the interstellar medium, and structure of our galaxy. Note: Satisfies core curriculum science requirement. Prerequisite(s): PY 161  and AT 201  or permission of the instructor. When Offered: Offered every other year in spring.

BIOLOGY

Department of Biology
Department Head: Colonel Turner

Requirements for major in biology are specified in Biology .

  
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    BI 101 - General Biology I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 3
    Credit Hours: 4

    Lecture material will be derived from the concepts presented in the text. BI 101 will focus upon basic biochemistry and the structure and function of the principle biomolecules; cell structure and function, membrane characteristics and the transport of material across the cell membrane; cell division including the process of fission, mitosis, and meiosis; the structure of DNA and the process of protein synthesis; basic Mendelian and non-Mendelian genetics. Laboratory topics will complement lecture material as well as include use of the scientific method activities as a means of reinforcing lecture material and preparing for an original research project to be conducted at the end of BI 102 .
  
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    BI 102 - General Biology II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 3
    Credit Hours: 4

    This course is a continuation of BI 101 . Lecture material will be derived from the concepts presented in the text. BI 102 will focus upon evolutionary principles including selection, speciation, phylogeny and homology; ecological principles including population and community dynamics, niche theory, competition, trophic levels and symbiosis; and the structure and functioning of specific organ systems. Laboratory topics will complement lecture material as well as include use of the scientific method activities as a means of reinforcing lecture material and preparing for an original research project to be conducted at the end of the semester.
  
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    BI 111 - Fundamentals of Biology I


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 3
    Credit Hours: 4

    This course is the first of a three-part sequence designed to introduce biology majors to the varied topics within the field of biology.  BI 111 will cover systematics and biodiversity including cladistics, and the taxonomic groups and phyla survey; evolution including microevolutionary and macroevolutionary theories; ecology to include competition, speciation, community structure, ecosystems, and biomes.  The laboratories will introduce cladistics, present the different phyla, and a semester-long project on ecology.
  
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    BI 112 - Fundamentals of Biology II


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 3
    Credit Hours: 4

    This course is the second of a three-part sequence designed to introduce biology majors to the varied topics within the field of biology.  BI 112 will focus on organismal biology specifically covering anatomical and physiological systems in plants and animals.  The laboratories will include dissection of different specimens as well as a semester-long project on organismal physiology.
  
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    BI 113 - Fundamentals of Biology III


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 3
    Credit Hours: 4

    This course is the third of a three-part sequence designed to introduce biology majors to the varied topics within the field of biology.  BI 113 will focus on cellular and molecular functioning.  Specifically, this course will cover transport across cell membranes, cellular respiration and photosynthesis, DNA structure and functioning of genes, and protein synthesis.  The laboratories will include experiments to investigate cell functioning, exercises to investigate DNA structure and modern molecular techniques, and a semester-long project on cell physiology. Prerequisite(s): BI 111  and BI 112  or instructor approval.
  
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    BI 192 - Independent Research


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 4-6
    Credit Hours: 2-3

    These courses are for rising third classmen pursuing research during the summer. Permission of instructor and department head required.
  
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    BI 193 - Independent Research


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 4-6
    Credit Hours: 2-3

    These courses are for rising third classmen pursuing research during the summer. Permission of instructor and department head required.
  
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    BI 204 - Physiology


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 3
    Credit Hours: 4

    The course involves a systematic study of how animals regulate their internal environment and respond and adapt to changes in their external environment. Emphasis will be on mammalian physiology. The laboratory component will stress the assessment of physiologic phenomena through data collection and analysis. Prerequisite(s): BI 101  and BI 102 , or BI 111 , BI 112 , and BI 113 .
  
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    BI 210 - Comparative Animal Nutrition


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    The course addresses basic concepts of nutrition including, nutrient digestion, absorption, and transport, energy balance, diet planning, and vitamin and mineral requirements. Particular attention will be focused on the role of nutrition in the development of chronic disease. Comparisons between humans and other vertebrate animals will highlight the variety of solutions to nutrient usage across species. Prerequisite(s): BI 101 , BI 102  or BI 111 , BI 112 , BI 113  
  
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    BI 216 - Animal Behavior


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    A general introduction to the study of animal behavior. Topics to be covered will include: development of behavior, neural and hormonal control of behavior, learning, aggression, and migration. Particular emphasis will be placed on the interpretation of behavior and research methods. Prerequisite(s): BI 101 , BI 102 , or BI 111 , BI 112 , and BI 113 , or permission of the instructor.
  
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    BI 217 - General Botany


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 3
    Credit Hours: 4

    An introduction to the biology of plants. Plant structure and functioning including the anatomy of tissues, physiology, ecology, systematics and the evolution of non-flowering and flowering plants will be presented in the course. The course will emphasize vascular plants with additional coverage of algae and fungi. Prerequisite(s): BI 101  and BI 102 , or BI 111 , BI 112 , and BI 113 .
  
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    BI 218X - Biology of Gender


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    Biology of Gender is designed to provide a general overview of reproduction methods in a variety of living organisms including humans. The course will focus on a number of relevant issues including but not restricted to how the body functions and how male and female health can be affected by social and environmental factors. Topics covered may include anatomy, development, asexual reproduction, general and reproductive health issues, hormone changes throughout life, contraception, pregnancy, STDs, men’s and women’s health in developing countries and eating disorders, and how humans use biotechnology to manipulate reproduction to produce human pharmaceuticals. Prerequisite(s): No prerequisites. Civilizations and Cultures (X).
  
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    BI 219 - Conservation Biology


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 3
    Credit Hours: 4

    This course is an introduction to the principles and modern practice of Conservation Biology. Lectures will be focused on examining the biological implementation and consequences of conservation, wildlife management, and ecosystem processes. Laboratory activities will not only explore the primary literature focused on recent developments in biodiversity studies, but will be focused on the application of population assessment models to biological datasets. Select field trips to local restoration and conservation areas will enhance an understanding of applying these conservation principles to modern global dilemmas. Prerequisite(s): BI 101  and BI 102 , or BI 111 , BI 112 , and BI 113 .
  
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    BI 222 - Environmental Science


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This course introduces students to environmental concepts and issues. Topics include ecological communities, land management, forest management, biogeochemical cycles, biodiversity conservation, endangered species, air and water pollution, climate change, nonrenewable energy, renewable energy, energy conservation, and ecological footprints. Prerequisite(s): No prerequisites.
  
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    BI 240 - Biological Agents in Warfare and Terrorism


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This course will cover the types of biological agents that may be used in warfare or employed by terrorists. The effects of these bacteria and viruses have on humans, animals, crop production, and the economy will be discussed. We will begin with a discussion of the use of biological weapons throughout history and the current status of weaponized bacteria and viruses. We will conclude by covering the future of biological as weapons including manipulation of current pathogens to maximize their destructive threat. Prerequisite(s): No prerequisites.
  
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    BI 245X - Epidemics and Society


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 0
    Credit Hours: 3

    This course will examine the relationships between devastating disease outbreaks and the evolution of human societies. Classic epidemics such as the “Black Death” of the Middle Ages and the Irish Potato Famine will be analyzed and also compared to modern challenges such as HIV AIDS and Influenza. The course will utilize both text and primary sources to demonstrate the powerful relationship between invisible microbial pathogens and the development of today’s political and religious landscape. Prerequisite(s): No prerequisites. Civilizations and Cultures (X).
  
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    BI 290/290W - Independent Research


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 4-6
    Credit Hours: 1-3

    These courses are for third classmen pursuing research during the fall and/or spring semesters. Permission of instructor and department head required. Students pursuing the Writing Intensive (W) option will produce an annotated bibliography and either an introduction or discussion section of a research manuscript. Students pursuing the non-W option will earn Pass/Fail credits for this course.
  
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    BI 291/291W - Independent Research


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 4-6
    Credit Hours: 1-3

    These courses are for third classmen pursuing research during the fall and/or spring semesters. Permission of instructor and department head required. Students pursuing the Writing Intensive (W) option will produce and annotated bibliography and either an introduction or discussion section of a research manuscript. Students pursuing the non-W option will earn Pass/Fail credits for this course.
  
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    BI 292/292W - Independent Research


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 4-6
    Credit Hours: 2-4

    These courses are for rising second classmen pursuing research during the summer. Permission of instructor and department head required. Students pursuing the Writing Intensive (W) option will produce an annotated bibliography and either an introduction or discussion section of a research manuscript. Students pursuing the non-W option will earn Pass/Fail credits for this course. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department head required. Writing Intensive Course (W).
  
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    BI 293/293W - Independent Research


    Lecture Hours: 0
    Lab Hours: 4-6
    Credit Hours: 2-4

    These courses are for rising second classmen pursuing research during the summer. Permission of instructor and department head required. Students pursuing the Writing Intensive (W) option will produce an annotated bibliography and either an introduction or discussion section of a research manuscript. Students pursuing the non-W option will earn Pass/Fail credits for this course. Prerequisite(s): Permission of instructor and department head required. Writing Intensive Course (W).
  
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    BI 303 - Developmental Biology


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 3
    Credit Hours: 4

    The normal development of organisms with a comparative description and analysis of the general principles governing growth and development. Laboratory work emphasizes embryology of the frog, chick, and pig. Prerequisite(s): BI 101  and BI 102 , or BI 111 , BI 112 , and BI 113 . When Offered: Developmental Biology is offered on an every other year basis.
  
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    BI 304 - Comparative Vertebrate Morphology


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 3
    Credit Hours: 4

    This course involves detailed study of the different anatomical systems of the vertebrates. Evolutionary relationships among the groups and functional interpretations of anatomy are stressed.  Prerequisite(s): BI 101  and BI 102 , or BI 111 , BI 112 , and BI 113 .
  
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    BI 306 - Histology


    Lecture Hours: 3
    Lab Hours: 3
    Credit Hours: 4

    Histology is the study of anatomy at the tissue level. This course will examine the characteristics of the four basic tissue types and the structure and organization of organ and organ systems. The laboratory portion of the course will emphasize the identification of different tissue types and organs throughout the body based on tissue composition. This course is highly recommended for those students planning on pursuing a career in medicine. Prerequisite(s): BI 101  and BI 102 , or BI 111 , BI 112 , and BI 113 . When Offered: Histology is offered on an every other year basis.
 

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